July 27, 2013
In the name of Allah, Most gracious, most merciful
– It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His messenger (SAW) have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (SAW), he has indeed strayed into a plain error>> Qur’an, Al-Ahzab 33:36.
– You shall certainly be tried and tested in your wealth and properties and in your personal selves, and you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from some of those who received the scripture before you (Jews and Christian) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah; but if you persevere patiently, and become Al-muttaqun (the pious) then verily, that will be a determining factor in all affairs (and that is from the great matters which you must hold on with all your efforts)>> Qur’an Al-Imran 3:186.
Bearing in mind that Allah (swt) has the sole right to make laws by directly giving instructions in the Qur’an and/or by instructing us through His (swt) Messenger, Muhammad (saw), I present discussions on the permissibility of marriage to minors according to the Qur’an, the sunnah of the Prophet (saw) and the Ijmaa’ of the sahaabah and those who came after them.
*Who are Minors?
The Oxford Dictionary of Current English defines a minor as a person under (below) the full age of legal responsibility (the age at which a person can face appropriate sections of the law if he/she commits any punishable offence). This age varies from country to country but on the average, it is put at eighteen. Thus, persons below this age may be referred to as minors. Nevertheless, in the context of Islamic law, if an individual has not grown to puberty (puberty – This word is derived from the Latin Word “Pubertas” which means “adult” Technically, the term refers to the period during which an individual becomes capable of sexual reproduction. More broadly speaking however, puberty is used as a collective term to refer to all the physical changes that occur in the growing of girl or boy, as the individual passes from childhood to adulthood. (See the book “Adolescence” by L . Steinberg, published by McGraw Hill, 1993).
(In girls, the growth of breasts, pubic hairs (the underarm and under leg), the change in body shape (the hips get wider), irregular menstruation are early signs of puberty. During puberty, girls start to recognize sexual feelings and may even start to have strong sexual urges because of the increase in hormones of their body. This is followed by a psychological tendency for independence. Individual values are sorted out at this age). Therefore, if an individual has not grown to puberty he/she is still considered a minor. Thus, shariah does not necessarily stipulate a particular age at which one attains puberty as it really varies from one individual to the other; rather, it follows the indices for the determination of puberty. Hence, Islam views persons below this period (puberty), as minors. In the Arabic Lexicon, various words have been used to describe minors (little young girls) such as: Jaariyah- a young girl, (according to the Arabic – English Dictionary by Dr. Rohi Balabaaki, 11th Edition).
This word (Jaariyah) has variously been used in several ahadeeth to refer to the minor girl. In one of them, he (saw) said: “for the male child (slaughter) two sheep and for the Jaariyah (female child), a sheep… (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Baihaqee, Ibn Hibban, Abu Dawood, Ibn Maajah and others).
Sageerah: a child, minor girl or underage, (according to Balbaaki and in the Hans Wear Dictionary of modern written Arabic, edited by David cowan).
Bikrun: A virgin. This is used in a more general sense, to refer to a girl who has never had any actual sexual experience. However, all the terms are sometimes interchangeably used as in the hadeeth below:
“Jabir bn Abdullah (RA) reported that: He married a non virgin and when the Prophet (saw) met him, he (saw), asked him, “have you married O Jabir?” He replied, “Yes. He (saw) then asked him, “Bikran am thayban? (Is she a virgin or a non-virgin?), “He replied: non-virgin.” The Prophet (saw) then said: alaa Jaariyatan tulaa ibuhaa wa tulaa ‘ibuka? (Shouldn’t you have considered a virgin who would play with you and you would play with her?)…(Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and others).
This hadeeth shows that the Prophet (saw) recognized the two words ‘Jaariyah” and “bikrun” as two words that are synonymous.
Marriage to minors would seem to imply a betrothal or some formal agreement where the female (below puberty) is given in marriage such that final consummation is delayed until both parties are ready for private conjugal relations. A condition usually determined by the attainment of puberty. The permissibility of this type of marriage is probably explained by the desire to draw families together thereby facilitating social integration.
I present below evidences in the shariah concerning the permissibility of such marriages.
*Evidences from the Qur’an
Almighty Allah (swt) says:
<< “And for those of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the iddah (prescribed period), if you have doubt (about their periods), is three months; and for those who have no courses (they are still immature) their iddah (prescribed period) is three months likewise…>>”. Talaq: 4.
This verse was revealed concerning divorcee women whom the shari’iah for obvious reasons commanded to observe some prescribed waiting period (iddah) but who for one reason or the other do not observe menstrual cycles. These groups of people are divided into two: (a) those who have passed the age of monthly courses (b) those who for whatever reasons are not menstruating or those who have reached the age of puberty – those who are immature.
This is a clear evidence that marriage to minors is permissible “since one who is not married could not have been divorced and cannot therefore observe the waiting period – iddah”. (see the Book, Al-ma’uunah ‘alaa madhaahibi ‘Aalimul madeenah vol. 2 page 523, by Sheik Qaadi Abdulwahhab al-Bagdaadi and Sheik Humaish Abdulhaqq).
Explaining the phrase, “Wal-laa’i lam yahidna”, Imaan Qurtubi said;
“This refers to the minor. Her iddah period will also be three months…” (see al-Jaami’li-Ahkaamul Qur’an of Imaam Qurtubi).
‘Allamah Aluusiy in his tafseer of “wal-laa’i lam yahidna”, says it refers to:
“Minors who have not reached the age of menstruation” (see Ruuhul ma’ani fi tafseeril Qur’anil Azeem, by Aluusiy).
Also, Imaam Muhammad Al-Ameen Ash-Shinqeetiy says:
“But for those who do not menstruate due to old age or immaturity, Allah (swt) has clearly mentioned that their iddah is three months”.
(see Adwaa’ul Bayaan fi Idaahil-Qur’an bil Qur’an, Vol. 1, page 149, by Muhammad Ameen Shinqeetiy).
Such comments abound in the Books of tafseer and fiqh.
I round up with that of Imaam ibn Quddaamah Al-maqdesiy: he says:
“ This phrase means that a girl who is not matured and who probably could not decide for the choice of husband could be married out by her father since it was not possible for a female who is a minor to observe iddah except she would have been married and subsequently divorced”. (see Al-mughni, of Imaam Ibn Quddaamah, Vol. 9)
The Hanafii, maaliki, shaafi’is, Hanbali, and the zhaahiriyy schools of Jurisprudence also explained that the phrase “Wal-laa’i lam yahidna”, refers to young girls who have not started menstruating. (see Al-mughni Vol. 11, page 207, and Al-Furuu’ Vol. 5 page 541, and also sharh zarkhashi Vol, 5, page 544.
Allah (swt) says:
“And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry (other) women of your choice…” An-Nisa’i: 3. concerning the revelation of this verse, Aisha (RA) mother of the believers, explains;
“An orphan (A yateemah) girl used to be under the care of a guardian with whom she shared property. Her guardian being attracted by her wealth and beauty would intend to marry her without giving her a just mahr(dowry) i.e. The same mahr as any other person might give her ( in case he married her). So such guardians were forbidden to do that unless they did justice to their female wards and gave them the highest mahr their peers might get… so, they were forbidden to marry those orphan girls for whose wealth and beauty they had a desire unless with justice…” (Bukhari).
This is another clear verse that proves the permissibility of marriage to a minor if the condition of doing justice to them particularly concerning their mahr and general care is fulfilled.
Imaam Khattabi said, “Abdullah bn Ahmad bn Hanbal (R) reports from his father, Ahmad bn Hanbal, that:
“And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry (other) women of your choice…”
“Allah’s statement shows that if you do not fear being unjust to them then you can marry them, and orphanage is for the one who is not matured”. (see Al-mughni, of Imaam Ibn Quddaamah Vol. 9, page 398-404).
Also commenting on this aayah, Imaam shinqeetiy said:
“It is deducible from this aayah that marriage to an orphan girl is permitted when she is given her due rights”. (see Adwaa’ul Bayaan Vol. 1, Page 305).
“Imaam Maalik, Abu Haneefah, Auzaa’i, Thauriy, Abu Thaur, Rabi’ah and Al-layth where even of the opinion that this verse also shows the permissibility of the guardian being the giver and taker in the marriage of the orphan girl if the conditions are fulfilled. Imaam Shaafi’i is of the opinion that another guardian (a relative of the orphan) closer to the orphan than him or at the same level of closeness should stand in as the waliyy”. (Ibid).
*Evidences from the Sunnah
The evidences from the Sunnah include various ahaadeeth concerning the marriage of the Prophet (saw) to the mother of the believers, Aisha (RA) when she was a minor below puberty and the marriage of some of the sahaabah to minor during and after the demise of the Prophet (saw).
On the Authority of Aisha (RA):
“The Prophet (saw) married her and she was a six year old girl and consummated the marriage with her and she was nine and died when she was a girl of eighteen”.
Collected by Imaam muslim in his saheeh on the Authority of four different persons. They all reported from A’mish who reported from Ibrahim An-Nakha’i who also reported from Al-Aswad.
“On the Authority of Aisha (RA) who said: the Prophet (saw) married me at nine (9 years here means when she moved to stay with him in his (saw) house), and I lived with him (saw) for another nine years”. (see Tahqeeq ‘Aunul ma’bud by ‘Abdurrahman Muhammad ‘Uthman.
This hadeeth was collected by Imaam An-Nasaa’i in his Sunan on the authority of mutraf bn tarif form Abi Ishaaq from Abi Ubaidah from Aisha (R.A).
“On the Authority of Aisha (R.A), (in a very lengthy narration describing the proposal and the subsequent marriage of the Prophet (saw) to ‘Aisha and Saudah bint Zam’a after the demise of Khadeejah (RA)”. … and he (Abubakar (RA) said to Khaulah ‘call the Messenger of Allah (saw); she called him (saw) and he (Abubakar (RA) married Aisah (RA) to the Prophet (saw) and she was then a girl of six’. Collected by Imaam Ahmad in his musnad in a mursal form. Imam Haythaamee also collected it in majma’uzzawaaid, also in a lengthy narration and clearly mentioned it’s linkage up to Aisha (RA). Al-Allaamah Muhammad Naasiruddeen Al-Albaani said, “This hadeeth is authentic based on the standards of Imam Muslim”. (see Irwaa’ul Galeel fii Takhreej Ahaadeethu Manaarus Sabeel Vol. 6, page 231, by Muhammad Naasiruddeen Al-Albaani).
“On the Authority of ‘Urwah bn Zubair (RA) who said: “The Prophet (saw) married Aisha (RA) when she was seven and consummated the marriage when she was nine and died when she was eighteen”.
Imam Muslim collected the hadeeth on the Authority of bn Humaid from Abdur-Razzaq from mu’mar on the Authority of Az-zuhri from ‘Urwah bn Zubair.
Commenting on the reason why six was mentioned in earlier traditions and seven here, Imaam yahya An-Nawawi said:
“In majority of the narrations she (Aisha (RA) was mentioned to be six (at the time of marriage). The Jam’u between them is that she was six years, and some months (10 months) old (when the marriage was conducted) thus, in some narrations she mentioned six and in some others, she mentioned seven putting the months into consideration”.
“On the Authority of Aisha (RA) she said: “The Prophet (saw) married me and I was six and consummated marriage with me and I was nine years old”.
Imaam Bukhari and Muslim collected the hadeeth in their saheehs.
Through a total of seven different chains all leading to Hishaam bn Urwah bn Zubair, on the Authority of his father Urwah bn Zabair from Aisha (R.A).
Besides Bukhaari and Muslim, the following also variously authentically related the headeeth: Abu Dawood, An-Nasaa’i Ibn maajah, Ad-Daarimiy and Baihaqee in their sunan, Ibn jaarud in his muntaqiiy , Imaam at-Tayalisiy’ Imaam Ahmad and Ibn Awwaanah in their masnads, Haythamee in Majma’uz Zawaa’id, al-Haakim in Al- Mustadrak, Ibn Hibbaan in his saheeh, and Ibn sa’ad. It also collected by Imaam al-Bazzaar.
Maa shaa Allah, we do not have any doubts whatsoever concerning the authenticity of the haddeeth (comments passed by some people concerning the weakness of this hedeeth is not true at all ) and that in fact it is at highest martabah (level) of authentic ahaadeeth – What is agreed upon by Bukhari and Muslim (R).
Imaam Bukhari, Muslim, Ad-daarimiy amongst others have grouped this set of ahaadeeth under: “chapter of marrying out of a small Virgin girl by her father”. Commenting on these ahaadeeth Imaam Ibn Qayyim Aj- Jawziyya (RA) said: “this hadeeth is surely a proof that it is permissible for the father to marry out his little Virgin daughter”. (see Aunul ma’bud sharh sunan Abu Dawood, Vol.6, by Ibn Qayyim Aj-Jawziy, with notes from Abdurrahman Muhammad ‘Uthman).
Imaam Muhammad Aliy Ash-shawkaanee in Naylul Awtaar, said: “these ahaadeeth also prove that it is permissible for an elderly man to marry a small virgin girl” (see Naylul Awtaar Vol. 6, page 234-236 by Imaam Muhammad Aliy Ash-shawKaanee).
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaniy also said “(this marriage is permissible) even if she is at cradle, though, cohabitation with her has to be at a time when she is matured for it” (Ibid).
* Evidence 6:
“Umar bn Khattaab (RA) proposed to Ummu kulthum, the daughter of Abubakr (RA) after the death of Abubakr (RA) through Aisha (RA). Then, she (Ummu_kulthum) was less than 10 years old, since she was born after the death of her father. She refused and instead married Talha bn Ubaidullah (RA) and Umar married Ummu kulthum, the daughter of Ali (RA) through Fatimah but Muhammad (RA).” (see Al-mughni Vol.9, page 404. It was also narrated by Haafidh Ibn katheer in Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah vol.7, page 157 and 367).
“Abdullah bn ‘Umar reported that: “Qudaamah bn maz’un married the daughter of his brother (Uthmaan bn maz’un) to me. (Wa hattat jaariyah ilaa hawaa Ummihaa) meaning: and the girl followed the suggestions of her mother and refused ( to marry bn Umar) and the case was brought before the prophet (SAW), who said: “Innahaa yatee mah”,: meaning: verily, she is an orphan and she may not married except with her permission… Thus, she was taken away from me and was married to al- Mugheerah bn Shu’bah”. (Collected by Imaam Ahmad, Daaruqutni and others. Verified by al- Albaani in ir waa’ul Galeel.
“Athram reported: “Qudaamah bn maz’un married the daughter of Zubair when she was still a small girl. Some mentioned to him that she was still small (compared to his age) and he said: “if I die she will inherit me and if I live she is my wife”. (Collected by sa’eed bn Mansur in his Sunan, see also, At-Tamkeel lima faata Takhreejihi min Irwaa’il Galeel, page 125, by saalih bn Abdul ‘Azeez Muhammad Aal-shaikh).
“Abdullah bn Ahmad bn Hanbal, said: “I asked him (his father) concerning the marriage of a girl… five years old and he said: no one should marry out such a girl except her father”. (see masaa’il fiqhiyyah, by Ibraheem Muhammad Jalingo, Vol.2, page 776.)
*Evidence from Ijmaa: Ijmaa’, means the concensus or what is agreed upon either by the Sahaabah, which become Ijmaa’us Sahaabah or by the ‘Ulamaa’ of a particular period in Islamic history or by the Sahaabah, and ‘Ulamaa’ of succeeding generation which becomes Ijmaa’ul ummah.
When the Ijmaa’ of the ‘Ulamaa of generations (including the Sahaabah) is based on text (from the Quran and the hadeeth) it becomes a clear cut evidence (i.e. daleel Qat’ee) that no one is permitted to differ from.
The Ijmaa’ of the ummah is also an important aspect of Islamic jurisprudence and it also establishes the permissibility of marriage to minors in Islam such that there is no known difference of opinion concerning the issue.
“Imaam bn Munthir an-Naisaburi said:
“All those from whom we took knowledge agree that a father marrying out his minor daughter is permissible” (see Al-ijmaa’, page 58, of bn munthir, and Al-mughni Vol. 9,).
Imam Yahya An-Nawawi said: “The Muslims have a consensus on the permissibility for the father to marry out his little virgin daughter”. (see Aunul Ma’bud sharh sunan Abu Dawood, by Ibn Qayyim Aj-Jawziyy Vol. 6).
Ibn Qudaamah also said: “…but for the minor girl, there is no difference of opinion (that it is permissible for her father to marry her out at the age of minority)”. (see Al-Mughni Vol 9.
Ibn Qudaamah also said: “There is consensus that it is permissible for the father to marry out his virgin daughter when no conjugal relation is possible with her at the time”. (see Naylul Awtaar Vol. 6).
Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalaami also mentined a consensus and said: “Even if she (the girl) is at cradle, though cohabitation with her has to be at a time when she is matured for it”. (ibid)
“It is permissible for the father to marry out his little child and this is a matter without a difference of opinion”. (see Al-ma’unah Vol. 2 page 523 by Qaadi Abdulwahab Al-Baghdaadi and Humaish AbdulHaqq).
*On the Consent of the Bride
Concerning the consent of the Bride at minority age, some of the ‘Ulamaa (Ahlul-Madeenah) including maalik, shaafi’i, Ahmad, Ishaaq and Al-laythi, are of the opinon that it is not a condition for the validity of the Nikaah. This opinion was based on the hadeeth “A non-virgin has more right to herself than does her guardian; as for the virgin, her permission is taken in regard to herself and her silence is sufficient permission”. (this hadeeth is in muslim, Abu Dawood and others).
They explained that females by this hadeeth are divided into two concerning their consent at marriage: (a) one who has a greater right over herself and (b) one whose consent should still be sought but her waliyy has a greater right over her.
Hence they deduced that her consent is only a matter of preference (mustahabb) and does not necessarily affect the validity of the marriage. (see Al-mughni).
However the most authentic opinion, Allah (swt) knows best is that her consent is a precondition for her marriage when she is able to. The difference in the use of words for the virgin’s consent in the hadeeth quoted above is in the sense that the non-virgin must be consulted and her waliyy must get her words clearly for the marriage to be binding while in the case of the virgin, her mode of response is due to her shyness. This is proven by the statement of Aisha (RA): “O Allah’s Messenger (saw)! A virgin feels shy, “And he (saw) said: “Her consent is (expressed) by her silence”. (Bukhari, Muslim and others).
Thus, the difference is in the manner of response and not in the status of the response. This position is further strengthened by the hadeeth of Abdullah bn Umar quoted in evidence 7 from the sunnah above, and the hadeeth of Abdullah bn, Abbas who reported that: “Verily, (Jaariyatan Bikran) small virgin girl came to the Prophet (saw) and told him that her father gave her in marriage against her will. The Prophet (saw) then gave her the choice (of maintaining or terminating the marriage). Collected by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Daraqutnee, Ibn Maajah.
However, it is apparent from the haadeeth on consent of the minor bride that it refers to the minor who is able to choose. This is because there is no meaning to the choice of the one who is unable to (due to her age) choose. Since she may not understand what choice is. This position is strengthened by the marriage of Aisha (RA) seeking her consent since she had not reached the age at which her consent could be relied upon”. (see al-mughni and fiqhus sunnah, vol.3, by sheikh sayyid saabiq).
Thus, Imaam Zirqaanee in sharh Az-Zirqaanee ‘Alaa muwatta’ Imam maalik states:
“For the small immature girl, her father would not take her consent”.
In any case, the shariah prescribes that all marriage arrangements must be made in the best interest of the minors involved. It is unlawful to do anything disadvantageous to them.
*The choice of opting out
Just like a bikrun baaligah or a thayyb (virgin lady or a free non-virgin), the bikrun sagheerah (the minor girl) also has the choice to discontinue the marriage if she dislikes the husband for whatever reasons.
This is based on the following evidences;
“The wife of thaabit bn Qaais (RA) came to the Prophet (saw) and said: ‘O Allah’s Messenger (saw)! I do not find fault with thaabit bn Qaais in respect of his character or religion but I hate to be guilty of husband’s disobedience in Islam (If I remain with him)? The Prophet (saw) asked her; will you give him back the garden which he has given you (as mahr)?’ and she replied: yes’, ‘ So the Prophet (saw) said to him (Thaabit) bn Qaais), accept the garden and divorce her once”. (Bukhari).
The second evidence is the hadeeth of Ibn Abbas (RA); “Verily a (Jaariyatan Bikran) small virgin girl came to the Prophet (saw) and told him that her father gave her in marriage against her will.
The Prophet (saw) then gave her the choice (of maintaining or terminating the marriage). (Ibid).
These ahaadeeth show that if a virgin girl is married out and she is not pleased with the husband she can choose to maintain or terminate the marriage just like the matured virgin or the non-virgin. This provision does not prevent the matured women (who even have to think carefully and pray fervently before making a choice of husband) from choosing a husband; it does not also prevent a father from marrying out his daughter at minority age after careful consideration.
Secondly, considering the fact that a father is better experienced and would normally do only the best for his ward, it is probably more of a protection of the ward’s interest. (see the family structure in Islam, by Hammudah Abdal-Ati, page 76-77).
*Marriage To minor peculiar to Islam?
The lawfulness of such marriages does not necessarily mean that they were peculiar to any society, region, generation or religion. Thus, Christian evangelists and other believers in the Bible who have been bitterly reviling the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) and his followers on account of his marriage with Aisha (RA) we put it to them, we are challenging them that they only appear to be ignorant of the practices of their great patriarchs and prophets that are recorded in the Bible itself in this connection.
For example, the most famous marriage in Christianity according to Christian belief is no doubt that of Mary (Maryam A.S), Jesus’s mother with Joseph. While the following details are not in the Canonical Gospels in the Bible, it appears from other early Christian writings (known as apocryphal writings) that Mary was twelve years old when the temple elders decided to find a husband for her.
They selected the husband by drawing lots, and Joseph whom they chose was an elderly man, being according to some accounts ninety years old. The husband was selected and Mary was handed over to him, and she played no part in selecting him. (see 1913th Edition, of Catholic Encyclopedia).
While the western Christian churches may not accept these accounts because of their selfish interests as authentic, the Eastern churches in Europe do accept that Mary was 12 years old and Joseph was a widower of 90 years old when they married. Moreover, there is nothing in the Gospels of the New Testament to contradict these accounts, and the Gospel stories are not at all inconsistent with these ages for Mary and Joseph.
At various times, very youthful marriages prevailed amongst the Jews. It is found in the Babylonian Talmud that a girl of the age of 3 years and a day may be betrothed, subject to her father’s approval and in the second half of the seventeenth century; the bride groom was frequently not more than ten years old while the bride was still younger. (see “Girls married at the age of 3 before, according to the Jewish holiest book, The Talmud”, by John Bravo. And the family structure in Islam, by Hammudah Abdal-Ati, page 76-77).
In Abyssinia in the sixth century a law was issued prescribing forcible inter marriage between Christians and baptized Jews. Accordingly, no boy or girl over thirteen was to remain unmarried, because such marriages would lead to speedy amalgamation of the communities. (Ibid).
Amongst the Hindus, child marriage of daughters at age 5 and 6 years old was common during the Brahmanic Dark Ages due to the custom of dowry. Law books prescribed that the best partner for a man is approximately one third his age. (manu.IX.94):
“A man, aged thirty years shall marry a maiden of twelve who please him or a man of twenty four, a girl of eight years of age”. (see Child Marriage In Hinduism).
The Roman law stipulated that a man might marry, at the age of fourteen and a woman at the age of twelve (12). This law was adopted by the church and is still preserved in various countries including some regions of the U.S. In the USA last century, the age of consent was even 10 years old. California was the first state to change the age of consent to 14, which it did in 1889, (and now 18), In England it was only in 1929, (84, years ago) that the ancient Christian minimum age for the marriage of females, which was 12, was abandoned.
While the age of consent for marriage is being increased, the age of consent for homosexuality is being lowered. In England during the regime of Tony Blair, the age of homosexuality consent has been lowered despite the fact that “the House of the Lords” has refused it on three occasions. Analysts say that the prime minister Tony Blair did that in expectation of more electoral votes and to accord “gays” the rights due to them in a “civilized society” (see The Age of Consent, by Dr R.K .Paisley ).
It is observed that such a general and somewhat persistent phenomenon is not fully explicable in terms of any one culture or age. Some common reasons must account for marriages of this type in the history of mankind.
Lastly, I am closing this message by asking my Nigerian Muslims and non-Muslims Brothers and Sisters some important questions that needs urgent and sincere answers.
1. As Nigerian Muslims, can’t we have the right to practice our religion accordingly as it is?.
2. Do we ever enforce our religious rules and cultures to anyone?
3. Why don’t some people want peace to reign in this our blessed Country (Nigeria)?
4. Why it is some people always want to rob Nigerian Muslims of their Allah-given and fundamental rights?
5. Is there any hiding Agenda to all these attacks on Islam and Muslims in Nigeria?
We want to know and understand all these, please…period.
Wallahul musta’aan, Wa bihit- taufeeq.
Imam Murtada Muhammad Gusau
Chief Imam Nagazi Juma’at Mosque Okene,
Kogi State Nigeria.
Ramadan 18, 1434 A.H. July 27, 2013.
The views expressed are those of the author and not the views of NewsRescue