Lazy eyes listen
Following a summit in the Indian capital of New Delhi on Saturday, the world’s 20 major economies issued a united proclamation. The treaty was hammered out amid substantial geopolitical difficulties among a number of members, and the Ukraine conflict threatened to block its adoption.
The proclamation was never anticipated to take a specific stance on the war in Ukraine, due to disputes among members and India’s neutral stance on the issue. The declaration states that all nations “must refrain from the threat or use of force to seek territorial acquisition against the territorial integrity, sovereignty, or political independence of any state,” and that “the use or threat of use of force to seek territorial acquisition against the territorial integrity, sovereignty, or political independence of any state” is prohibited.
With Russia and Ukraine both attacking land claimed by the other, this language provides a technical solution that both Russia’s representative, Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, and his Western counterparts might accept.
Despite noting that “the G20 is not the platform to resolve geopolitical and security issues,” the declaration calls for the revival of the Black Sea Grain Initiative, which Russia withdrew from in July due to the US and EU’s failure to keep their promise to facilitate Russian food and fertilizer exports.
The declaration expressly requests “unimpeded deliveries of grain, foodstuffs, and fertilizers/inputs” from both Russia and Ukraine.
Growth that is sustainable
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrived at the summit with the goal of “strengthening the voice of the Global South,” he told attendees on Saturday. As a result, the declaration urges for global financial institutions to be reformed in order to “promote growth, reduce inequalities, and maintain macroeconomic and financial stability.”
In other situations, developing countries’ loans should be restructured, and these countries should be granted access to a “non-discriminatory, fair, open, inclusive, equitable, sustainable, and transparent multilateral trading system,” according to the text.
To tackle food shortages, the statement also calls for further research on “climate-resilient and nutritious grains,” as well as an increase in global fertilizer output.
Agenda for Climate Change
The declaration demands “the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement and its temperature goal.” The statement claims that reaching the objective of limiting global warming to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels will necessitate “meaningful and effective actions,” such as greater carbon pricing, the elimination of fossil fuel subsidies, and the phase-out of coal power.
However, meeting these targets will be an expensive endeavor. According to the proclamation, developing countries will require up to $5.9 trillion by 2030, while the entire globe will require $4 trillion per year by 2030 to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050.
The world is multipolar.
While the leaders of India, China, and Russia have all proclaimed the advent of a “multipolar” world order in which the West as a whole is no longer the only arbiter of international affairs, the proclamation makes no reference of the word.
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Instead, it advocates for UN reform, claiming that the organization must be “responsive to the entire membership, faithful to its founding purposes and principles of its Charter, and adapted to carrying out its mandate.” India, in particular, has consistently campaigned for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, as well as for other developing countries to join it.